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Version: 4.15.1

Using JsonPath expressions

JSON stands for JavaScript Object Notation. It's a lightweight data format to exchange data. JsonPath is a query language for JSON, similar to XPath for XML.

JsonPath expressions always refer to a JSON structure in the same way as XPath expressions are used in combination with an XML document. The "root member object" in JsonPath is always referred to as $ regardless if it is an object or array.

JsonPath is supported by the following components:

Selecting nodes

JsonPath expressions use dot–notation, for example $[0].title.

Alternatively bracket–notation like $['store']['book'][0]['title'] can be used.

spaces in json keys

Use the bracket-notation if a JSON key contains spaces, for example: $['JSON key with spaces'].


Use the operators below to select elements in a JSON.

$The root element to query. This starts all path expressions.
@The current node being processed by a filter predicate.
*Wildcard. Available anywhere a name or numeric are required.
..Deep scan. Available anywhere a name is required.
.<name>Dot-notated child
['<name>' (, '<name>')]Bracket-notated child or children
[<number> (, <number>)]Array index or indexes
[start:end]Array slice operator
[?(<expression>)]Filter expression. Expression must evaluate to a boolean value.


Functions can be invoked at the tail end of a path - the input to a function is the output of the path expression. The function output is dictated by the function itself.

FunctionDescriptionOutput type
min()Provides the min value of an array of numbersDouble
max()Provides the max value of an array of numbersDouble
avg()Provides the average value of an array of numbersDouble
stddev()Provides the standard deviation value of an array of numbersDouble
length()Provides the length of an arrayInteger
sum()Provides the sum value of an array of numbersDouble
keys()Provides the property keys (An alternative for terminal tilde ~)Set<E>
concat(X)Provides a concatinated version of the path output with a new itemlike input
append(X)add an item to the json path output arraylike input
first()Provides the first item of an arrayDepends on the array
last()Provides the last item of an arrayDepends on the array
index(X)Provides the item of an array of index: X, if the X is negative, take from backwardsDepends on the array

Filter Operators

Filters are logical expressions used to filter arrays. A typical filter would be [?(@.age > 18)] where @ represents the current item being processed. More complex filters can be created with logical operators && and ||. String literals must be enclosed by single or double quotes ([?(@.color == 'blue')] or [?(@.color == "blue")]).

==left is equal to right (note that 1 is not equal to '1')
!=left is not equal to right
<left is less than right
<=left is less or equal to right
>left is greater than right
>=left is greater than or equal to right
=~left matches regular expression [?( =~ /foo.*?/i)]
inleft exists in right [?(@.size in ['S', 'M'])]
ninleft does not exists in right
subsetofleft is a subset of right [?(@.sizes subsetof ['S', 'M', 'L'])]
anyofleft has an intersection with right [?(@.sizes anyof ['M', 'L'])]
noneofleft has no intersection with right [?(@.sizes noneof ['M', 'L'])]
sizesize of left (array or string) should match right
emptyleft (array or string) should be empty


This JSON is used in the examples below.

"store": {
"book": [
"category": "reference",
"author": "Nigel Rees",
"title": "Sayings of the Century",
"price": 8.95
"category": "fiction",
"author": "Evelyn Waugh",
"title": "Sword of Honour",
"price": 12.99
"category": "fiction",
"author": "Herman Melville",
"title": "Moby Dick",
"isbn": "0-553-21311-3",
"price": 8.99
"category": "fiction",
"author": "J. R. R. Tolkien",
"title": "The Lord of the Rings",
"isbn": "0-395-19395-8",
"price": 22.99
"bicycle": {
"color": "red",
"price": 19.95
"expensive": 10
JsonPath exampleResult
$[*].authorThe authors of all books
$..authorAll authors
$.store.*All things, both books and bicycles
$.store..priceThe price of everything
$[2]The third book
$[-2]The second to last book
$[0,1]The first two books
$[:2]All books from index 0 (inclusive) until index 2 (exclusive)
$[1:2]All books from index 1 (inclusive) until index 2 (exclusive)
$[-2:]Last two books
$[2:]All books from index 2 (inclusive) to last
$[?(@.isbn)]All books with an ISBN number
$[?(@.price < 10)]All books in store cheaper than 10
$[?(@.price <= $['expensive'])]All books in store that are not "expensive"
$[?( =~ /.*REES/i)]All books matching regex (ignore case)
$..*Give me everything
$ number of books

Useful references

For more detailed information go to:

Last update on May 15, 2024